Best Appetite Suppressants for Hunger Control and Weight Loss in 2022

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Appetite suppressants can help you lose weight by changing the way your body responds to hunger, boosting your metabolism, and increasing your energy levels.

There are dozens of appetite suppressant pills on the market claiming to be safe and effective options to lose weight, but very few of these claims are backed by clinical research.

Find out our picks for the best appetite suppressants.

Best Appetite Suppressants

Our top seven picks for best appetite suppressant pills to control hunger and help you lose weight are:

1. Garcinia Cambogia Extra – Best Appetite Suppressant Overall

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We chose Garcinia Cambogia Extra as the best herbal appetite suppressant because its formula is simple, natural, and effective at reducing food intake. It is derived from raspberry ketones and garcinia cambogia fruit.

Garcinia cambogia is widely used in appetite suppressants to aid in weight loss. It’s known to suppress hunger, block fat production, and decrease weight. Garcinia cambogia has also been found to boost serotonin levels which can mitigate emotional eating [1]. Human research on raspberry ketones is limited, but animal studies show that it can increase fat breakdown and prevent weight gain [2].

Garcinia Extra should be taken twice a day before meals. Garcinia’s website claims that users can achieve tighter abs and a firmer bum with Garcinia Extra. However, this is related to muscle strength and as with all appetite suppressants, you need a nutritious diet and regular exercise to see results.

Pros

Cons

Who Is Garcinia Extra Best For?

Garcinia Extra is best for those who want a simple, all-natural weight loss pill.

Who Should Avoid Garcinia Extra?

People with a history of heart conditions may want to avoid Garcinia Extra because raspberry ketones have been linked to coronary vasospasm, a chest pain syndrome [3]. Raspberry ketones can also affect blood sugar levels and may react poorly with diabetes medication [4].

Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding should avoid all appetite suppressants.

Summary

Garcinia Extra is one of many natural appetite suppressants. Its simple, herbal formula can be effective at reducing food intake and blocking fat production when combined with diet and exercise.

>> Check the best price for Garcinia Extra

2. PhenQ – Best Supplement To Curb Cravings

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PhenQ is an effective natural fat burner for both men and women that also works as an appetite suppressant supplement. The formula is made with natural ingredients that have a proven ability to promote weight loss. They include:

  • Capsimax powder: Capsimax powder is a blend of capsicum (cayenne pepper), piperine (black pepper), caffeine, and vitamin B3. It has strong thermogenic properties, i.e. it increases your body heat to burn stored fat [5].

  • Chromium Picolinate: While the effects are small, research shows that chromium picolinate can reduce your food intake, curb hunger cravings, improve your body composition [6].

  • Caffeine: Caffeine is commonly used in appetite suppressants to stimulate the fat-burning process in your body and give you a boost of energy [7].

  • Nopal Cactus and L-Carnitine: These are rich in amino acids. They turn your body fat into energy and reduce your food intake [7].

Because PhenQ is made of all-natural ingredients, it’s unlikely that you’ll experience side effects on this diet pill. However, our bodies can react negatively to even natural substances.

For example, people who are sensitive to caffeine may experience headaches on this supplement. PhenQ recommends limiting other sources of caffeine in your diet while taking their supplement.

Pros

  • 60-day money-back guarantee.

  • 100% vegan, all natural ingredients.

Cons

Who Is PhenQ Best For?

PhenQ is best for people who want a natural appetite suppressant supplement to control their hunger cravings. This may be good for people who struggle with exercising on their weight loss journey to supply them with extra energy.

Who Should Avoid PhenQ?

People who are sensitive to caffeine should avoid PhenQ. Like all appetite suppressing supplements, PhenQ should be avoided by pregnant or breastfeeding women. It should not be taken by people under 18. If you’re taking other prescription medications, you should consult with your doctor before taking PhenQ.

Summary

Overall, PhenQ is an effective natural appetite suppressant for men and women. Studies show that the natural ingredients in PhenQ can burn excess fat and help you lose weight. PhenQ has a decent 60-day money-back guarantee, so you can give this supplement a try risk-free.

>> Check the best price for PhenQ

3. Instant Knockout – Best Fat Burner for Men

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Instant Knockout is an incredibly potent appetite suppressant. It was chosen as the best fat burner for men because its fat-burning formula is well reviewed by MMA coaches, fighters, and athletes.

Instant Knockout’s active ingredients enhance the fat-burning process in the body to promote weight loss. Its benefits include:

  • Increased Thermogenesis: Ingredients like piperine and cayenne pepper seeds warm up the body to increase your fat-burning potential.

  • Boosts Metabolism: Zinc has been proven to support the metabolic process. A zinc deficiency is often associated with obesity [8].

  • Hunger Control: Instant Knockout contains glucomannan, a dietary fiber that sits in your stomach, making you feel fuller, longer [7].

  • Increased Energy: Instant Knockout contains a significant amount of caffeine to increase energy levels and stimulate the body to burn fat.

In addition to caffeine anhydrous, Instant Knockout contains green tea extract and green coffee beans as natural sources of caffeine. Green tea extract contains catechins that boost metabolism and reduce fat [9]. Green coffee bean extract is purported to have weight loss capabilities, but the research is questionable [7].

Pros

  • Vegan-friendly.

  • Boosts energy.

Cons

Who Is Instant Knockout Best For?

Instant Knockout is best for men who like burning fat while maintaining their muscle strength. Instant Knockout claims that the product is primarily for professionals in combat sports.

Who Should Avoid Instant Knockout?

Due to the sheer amount of caffeine and energy enhancers, Instant Knockout should be avoided by those who are sensitive to caffeine and have trouble sleeping. It should not be taken by anyone under 18 years of age.

Summary

Instant Knockout is one of the best appetite suppressant supplements for men looking to burn body fat. It contains natural stimulants that increase your energy levels and control hunger. It’s backed by professional coaches and athletes.

Caution:

Instant Knockout may not be suitable for anyone with caffeine sensitivity. This supplement contains 500mg of green tea extract, 100mg of green coffee extract, and 350mg of Caffeine Anhydrous per serving. The recommended dose of caffeine per day for a healthy adult is 400mg. Alternatives like LeanBean and Genius Diet Pills may be a better fit as they contain little to no caffeine.

>> Check the best price for Instant Knockout

4. Zotrim – Best for Quick Weight Loss

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We chose Zotrim as the best appetite suppressant for quick weight loss because it’s been clinically proven to control hunger and reduce stored fat. Studies show that Zotrim can significantly reduce body weight and waist circumference in several weeks [10].

In addition to Vitamin B3 and B6, Zotrim contains Yerba Mate and guarana. These natural sources of caffeine help you lose weight by increasing your body’s energy level and boosting your metabolism. In turn, the increased energy will make you feel less hungry and reduce your intake of food [7].

Zotrim’s natural appetite suppressant supplements are unlikely to cause side effects, but some users have reported feeling bloating, nausea, irritability, and constipation [10].

Pros

Cons

Who Is Zotrim Best For?

Zotrim is best for people who need an increase in energy level to help them burn excess fat and lose weight.

Who Should Avoid Zotrim?

Zotrim should be avoided by those who are sensitive to caffeine. Avoid Zotrim if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Summary

Unlike other supplements, Zotrim has clinical studies backing its effectiveness at reducing body fat. The lengthy refund period makes this a good option for those looking to try appetite suppressants with few risks involved.

>> Check the best price for Zotrim

5. Phen24 – Most Effective Supplement for Boosting Metabolism

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Phen24 comes with two appetite-suppressing supplements that are specially designed to boost metabolism. Their two-formula system is based on our body’s circadian rhythm, i.e. that our metabolic rate changes throughout the day in response to light and darkness [11].

During the day, our body will burn fat because our metabolic rate is high. When our metabolism slows down at night, calories are more likely to turn into fat. Phen24 works in sync with your circadian rhythm to boost metabolism to its full fat-burning potential regardless of the time of day.

Phen24 is designed to increase energy levels and limit your food cravings. Its formula contains potent thermogenic and effective stimulants, including cayenne powder, caffeine, manganese, copper, zinc, and l-phenylalanine.

Pros

Cons

Who Is Phen24 Best For?

Phen24 is best for people who tend to snack at night. It increases thermogenesis at night i.e., warms up your body so it produces more energy. In turn, you’ll feel less hungry and consume fewer calories. Phen 24 is also good for people who have trouble exercising.

Who Should Avoid Phen24?

Phen24 should be avoided by people who are easily stimulated by caffeine, prone to bouts of insomnia, or have other metabolic issues.

Summary

Phen24 promotes weight loss by boosting your normal fat metabolism to its peak regardless of the time of day. We’ve named Phen24 the most effective appetite suppressant for boosting metabolism.

>> Check the best price for Phen24

6. Trimtone – Best Fat Burner for Belly Fat

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Trimtone is a natural appetite suppression pill. It works to boost your metabolism so that your body will burn stored fat when you’re at rest.

The formula contains grains of paradise, a potent fat-burning herb in the ginger family. Studies show that a daily dose of grains of paradise is effective at reducing visceral fat and preventing the accumulation of fat cells in women [12].

Trimtone also contains natural ingredients like green bean coffee and green tea extract that are high in caffeine and can break down fat cells. It also contains glucomannan (dietary fiber) that can reduce calorie intake and make you feel full longer.

Pros

Cons

Who Is Trimtone Best For?

Trimtone is best for women who want to lose weight but are too busy to take several pills or injections per day. You only must take one capsule per day before bed. While Trimtone is marketed towards women, it’s potent enough to burn fat in men.

Who Should Avoid Trimtone?

Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding should avoid Trimtone. Trimtone tablets contain gelatin, so may not be appropriate for vegans and vegetarians. Like most appetite suppressants, Trimtone contains caffeine and should be avoided if you’re easily stimulated by caffeine.

Summary

Trimtone is effective at burning stubborn fat to aid weight loss. Its healthy ingredients, like green tea and grains of paradise, make it our choice for the best natural appetite suppressant supplement to burn fat off your belly.

>> Check the best price for Trimtone

7. PrimeShred – Best Fat Burner for Mental Focus

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We chose PrimeShred as the most versatile appetite suppressant because it is a natural supplement that also accelerates fat burn, increases energy levels, and prevents mental burnout.

With 500mg of green tea extract, 225mg of caffeine anhydrous, and 100mg of green coffee, PrimeShred is packed with natural stimulants that amplify the body’s fat-burning process.

On top of its fat-burning capabilities, PrimeShred’s formula places a heavy focus on mood regulation and mental focus to aid your workout routine. Some of these mood-amplifying ingredients include:

  • L-Theanine: This amino acid has been shown to help users stay focused and relaxed without causing drowsiness or fatigue [13].

  • DMAE: Dimethylaminoethanol is said to promote focus and improve memory because it accelerates the production of acetylcholine, the main neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory [14].

  • Rhodiola Rosea Root: Rhodiola is apoptogenic, so it helps your body adapt to stressful situations, such as intense exercise while improving physical stamina [15].

  • L-Tyrosine: This is one of the amino acids responsible for helping your body make dopamine and adrenaline. In turn, you’ll experience improved motor skills and reactivity during a workout.

Unlike other supplements that require you to take multiple doses throughout the day, with Prime Shred, you’ll only need to take three capsules before breakfast.

Pros

Cons

Who Is PrimeShred Best For?

PrimeShred is a great option for those who want a natural and transparent formula to supplement an intense workout routine. It’s best for men and women who want increased fat-burn potential during their workouts while staying mentally alert.

Who Should Avoid PrimeShred?

PrimeShred contains three different sources of caffeine, so people with caffeine sensitivity should avoid this supplement. Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to become pregnant should also avoid PrimeShred.

Summary

A supplement that curbs hunger, accelerates fat burn, boosts energy levels, and lifts mood, PrimeShred offers it all. If you want more mental energy to workout, PrimeShred will help.

>> Check the best price for PrimeShred

How Did We Choose the Best Appetite Suppressants?

We looked at eight primary factors to determine what was the best appetite suppressant on the market:

  1. Ingredients

  2. Dosage

  3. Stimulants

  4. Safety

  5. Customer reviews

  6. Pricing

  7. Discounts

  8. Refund policy

Ingredients

Ingredients were our prime factor in determining the best appetite-suppressant supplement. Most supplements don’t have clinical evidence backing their effectiveness. They rely on the proven capabilities of their ingredients. Natural ingredients like dietary fiber took precedence over synthetic materials.

Dosage

The product’s dosage was also taken into consideration. Supplements need a sufficient dosage to be effective. However, some products required users to take up to nine pills a day. This isn’t realistic for the average person, so products with higher doses may have been ranked lower.

Stimulants

Weight loss supplements often contain stimulants like green tea and coffee beans to increase fat breakdown and boost energy levels. While stimulants are effective, they also come with harmful side effects, like headaches and nausea. Even the best appetite suppressants often contain stimulants.

Safety

We also considered the potential health and safety risks associated with the supplement. Many appetite suppressant supplements claim they have no side effects, but this is rarely true, and suppressing appetite can be dangerous. Even natural ingredients have the potential to cause mild symptoms. Some ingredients were even linked to serious conditions, like liver disease.

Customer Reviews

The primary purpose of a dietary supplement is to help users lose weight. Therefore, customer reviews gave us insight into the effectiveness of the best appetite suppressants.

Pricing

We know that even the most effective weight loss supplements are useless to you if they’re out of your price range. Taking pricing into consideration, we made sure to review products with varying costs. Our picks for the best appetite suppressants cost anywhere between $30–$75 for the first month’s supply.

Discounts

We know that discounts make it easier for you to test weight loss supplements that are a bit more than you can afford. We considered available discounts when developing our list of the best appetite suppressant supplements.

Refund Policy

Most people want a risk-free way to try appetite suppressants. They want to determine for themselves if the dietary supplement can actually suppress appetite. We considered this, so products with longer refund periods may have been ranked higher.

What Are Appetite Suppressants?

Appetite suppressants are a type of weight loss supplement that interfere with your body’s natural response to hunger. They help you lose weight by controlling your hunger, curbing your food cravings, and boosting your metabolism.

Appetite suppressants are usually recommended to patients struggling with obesity, i.e., they have a body mass index greater than 30. A healthcare provider may recommend an appetite suppressant to a patient with a BMI of 27 or higher if that patient has other preexisting conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

Some dietary supplements prevent body weight gain by blocking fat absorption. These do not necessarily suppress appetite and should not be used as a substitution for an appetite suppressant unless recommended by a healthcare provider.

How Do Appetite Suppressants Work?

Appetite suppressing supplements work by altering your brain’s response to hunger [16]. They send cues to your brain that make your stomach feel full faster. Subsequently, you’ll consume fewer calories and experience weight loss.

Appetite suppressants contain active ingredients, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and caffeine, that make you feel full, increase your energy levels, and allow you to take control of emotional eating.

When using prescription medication to suppress appetite, users should experience most of the weight loss in the first six months. Your healthcare provider may advise you to stop taking medication if you don’t lose at least 5% of your body weight after 12 weeks on the appetite suppressants [17].

Do Appetite Suppressants Work for Weight Loss?

Yes, appetite suppressants can work for weight loss when combined with a healthy diet and regular exercise. If you want to see the benefits of appetite suppressant supplements, you must partake in a holistic weight loss journey.

A study of prescription weight loss medication showed that on average, participants who took appetite suppressants as part of a healthy lifestyle program lost 3 to 12% more of their body weight than participants who did not take suppressants [17].

While you can lose weight on an appetite suppressant, its effects are limited and there’s a high chance of patients regaining weight after stopping the medication. This is why it’s important to build healthy lifestyle habits when taking appetite suppressants.

If you struggle with obesity and find that you’re not losing weight on a prescribed appetite suppressant, your doctor may refer you to a bariatric surgeon to see if that’s a good option for you [17].

Your healthcare provider may prescribe appetite suppressant supplements indefinitely if they’re effective in helping you lose weight and you experience no negative side effects.

Are Hunger Suppressants Safe?

Yes, a hunger suppressant is safe to use if you follow the recommendations of your healthcare provider and take note of FDA warnings.

Even the best appetite suppressant pills come with potential health risks. To ensure your safety when taking appetite suppressants, follow these tips:

  • Only buy appetite suppressing supplements from distributors approved by your healthcare provider.

  • Disclose all other medications with your healthcare provider, including vitamins and supplements.

  • Ask about and be aware of the side effects of your appetite suppressant before you start treatments.

  • Always use an appetite suppression supplement in combination with a nutritious diet and regular exercise routine.

Appetite suppressing supplements should not be taken by people who:

  • Are being treated with antidepressants and anti-anxiety medication.

  • Are pregnant or breastfeeding.

  • Have other preexisting conditions such as glaucoma, heart disease, or an overactive thyroid.

Benefits of Appetite Suppressants

For people who struggle with excess weight gain, appetite suppressants can kickstart a weight journey and motivate you to continue a healthy lifestyle.

Studies show that weight loss medication can help users lose up to 10% of their body weight [17]. This amount of weight loss significantly improves your health and reduces your risk of chronic diseases. Weight loss can regulate blood sugar levels, reduce blood pressure and triglyceride levels. It can also improve your quality of life by reducing joint pain and trouble sleeping.

Some people struggle with compulsive overeating when they’re bored, tired, or emotional. An appetite suppressant supplement can also change your relationship with eating by making you more aware of when you’re full.

Appetite suppressants can be an affordable way to get rid of stubborn fat. Some prescription appetite suppressants may be covered by your insurance. Over-the-counter appetite suppressants usually come with discounts and long refund periods so you can try the weight loss supplements risk-free.

Disadvantages of Appetite Suppressants

In some cases, the health risks associated with appetite suppressant supplements may outweigh their benefits. It is recommended to only use appetite suppressants if you’re concerned about your health rather than your appearance.

Some appetite suppressants can cause temporary side effects like constipation and dry mouth, as well as life-threatening health risks like liver damage.

The results of weight loss pills vary significantly. Before taking them, you should consider the cost, your family medical history, and the side effects.

You’re likely to gain weight after you stop taking dietary supplements, which is why it’s recommended you develop a holistic healthy lifestyle during treatment.

What Are the Types of Appetite Suppressants?

Appetite suppressants can be prescribed by a doctor or purchased as over-the-counter medication.

Over-the-counter appetite suppressants usually contain ingredients with thermogenic or stimulating properties. While research regarding their effectiveness is limited, natural ingredients, like chromium picolinate and green coffee bean extract, can be found in many over-the-counter appetite suppressants.

If you obtain an OTC appetite suppressant, be sure to consult with your healthcare provider as some can react negatively with other medications and cause health complications.

FDA Approved Appetite Suppressants

Due to the potential health risks associated with appetite suppressants, the FDA closely monitors their sale and production.

Only a few prescription appetite suppressants have been approved by the FDA. They include [17]:

  1. Diethylpropion

  2. Liraglutide

  3. Naltrexone-bupropion

  4. Phendimetrazine

  5. Phentermine

  6. Phentermine/Topiramate

Diethylpropion

Diethylpropion is an appetite suppression drug sold under the brand name Tenuate or Tenuate Dospan.

Diethylpropion comes in tablet form and should only be used on a short-term basis, a few weeks at most. Most prescription diet pills have only been approved by the FDA for short-term use.

Like other appetite suppressant supplements, diethylpropion should be used in combination with diet and exercise to see lasting effects.

Diethylpropion can be habit-forming if not taken correctly. Remember to take only the dose recommended by your healthcare provider.

Diethylpropion can also lead to drowsiness. You should not drive or operate machinery until you’ve taken the drug long enough to know how it affects you [18].

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The patients treated with diethylpropion lost an average of 11 lbs. over the course of eight weeks, whereas the placebo group only lost an average of 6 lbs.

Liraglutide

Liraglutide is an appetite suppression drug. It slows down the emptying process in the stomach, leading to decreased appetite and weight loss. Liraglutide comes in a liquid injection form and should usually be taken once daily.

Liraglutide for weight loss is known as Saxenda. Users typically see results within 16 weeks of treatment. If you do not see results at this time, it’s unlikely the medication will be effective with you, and you should consult with a healthcare provider.

It has many uses and benefits outside of body weight loss. It helps regulate blood sugar levels and reduces the risk of heart and stroke in patients with diabetes.

The National Institutes of Health warns that liraglutide injections may increase the development of developing tumors in your thyroid gland, based on animal studies [19]. While it’s unclear if this medication causes tumors in humans, you should consult with your doctor before starting the drug.

Naltrexone-bupropion

Naltrexone-bupropion, commercially known as Contrave, is a popular appetite suppressant. It impacts the hunger center of the brain to reduce your appetite and control food cravings.

When combined with a low-calorie intake and an effective exercise plan, naltrexone-bupropion can help you get rid of stored fat and prevent weight gain

Naltrexone-bupropion comes as an extended-release tablet that should be taken twice daily. Avoid taking this medication with a meal that’s high in fat. This medication has increased health risks when combined with opioids.

The NIH warns against using this drug with certain antidepressants because they contain the same active ingredients. Patients on Naltrexone have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts [20].

Phendimetrazine

Phendimetrazine is an FDA approved hunger suppressant also known by common brand names Rapdone, Bontril PDM, Bock-Arate, and Stabec-1.

Phendimetrazine may be prescribed for several purposes, but if you’re using it for appetite suppression, do not stop taking it suddenly because you may experience a serious reaction.

Like all appetite-suppressing drugs, phendimetrazine is meant to supplement healthy lifestyle changes. It should not be relied upon to promote weight loss on its own.

Phentermine

Phentermine speeds up short-term weight loss in overweight or obese people when combined with a nutritious diet and regular exercise.

You should see results from Phentermine quickly. Most people only take the drug for 3 to 6 weeks. Phentermine can be habit-forming, so you should not take more than the recommended dose [21].

Phentermine can result in mild symptoms such as dry mouth and constipation, as well as serious conditions like high blood pressure and insomnia.

Phentermine.png
The group taking phentermine lost a significant amount of weight within 14 weeks compared to the placebo group.

Phentermine/Topiramate

Phentermine and topiramate capsules are FDA approved to suppress appetite in overweight individuals. They help people who struggle with losing weight by making them feel full for a longer period after eating.

Phentermine and topiramate capsules may be habit-forming. They are sold as a combination product under the brand name Qsymia.

Note that of all these FDA-approved medications, only phentermine/topiramate has been approved for long-term use [22].

Best Appetite Suppressants: Common FAQs

We have the answers to the most popular questions on appetite suppressants.

What Is the Best Thing to Suppress Appetite?

The best thing to suppress appetite is an FDA-approved, prescription supplement. Prescription appetite suppressant supplements are proven to control hunger and help you lose weight, but just for short-term use.

You can also try over-the-counter options, but it’s best to stick to natural appetite suppressant supplements such as PhenQ or Instant Knockout.

Is There a Pill That Stops Your Appetite?

No, there is no pill that can stop your appetite completely. However, there are pills and dietary supplements that can suppress your appetite i.e. make you feel fuller for longer.

The best appetite suppressant pills are FDA-approved, prescription medication. There are also OTC appetite suppressants made with natural ingredients.

How Can I Suppress My Appetite Without Eating?

You can use appetite suppressant pills to suppress your appetite without increasing your food intake. This does not mean you should stop eating. Appetite suppressants are most effective at promoting weight loss when combined diet and exercise.

Best Appetite Suppressants Review: Conclusion

Our picks for the best appetite suppressant supplements were based on the effectiveness of their formulas. While a stimulant heavy suppressant like Garcinia Cambogia Extra is good for burning fat, PhenQ and PhenQ offer natural ingredients that suppress your appetite.

The suppressants on the market vary widely in price and function. Most appetite suppressants contain stimulating ingredients so that your body burns calories faster, but some have herbal ingredients that attempt to curb your food cravings and support a healthy diet.

Ultimately, the key to suppressing appetite is an effective, science-backed formula.

References:

  1. Hussein, Rasha. (2015). The Biological Importance Of Garcinia Cambogia: A review. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299406036_The_Biological_Importance_Of_Garcinia_Cambogia_A_review/citation/download

  2. Lee, Jungmin. “Further Research on the Biological Activities and the Safety of Raspberry Ketone Is Needed.” NFS Journal, vol. 2, 2016, pp. 15–18., doi:10.1016/j.nfs.2015.12.001.

  3. Khattar, Arjan. “Coronary Vasospasm and Raspberry Ketones Weight-Loss Supplement – Is There a Link?” The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, 2020, doi:10.14744/anatoljcardiol.2020.53496

  4. “Raspberry Ketone: Medlineplus Supplements.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257466.

  5. The Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Energy Balance: Critical Review and Meta-analyses of Studies in Humans. Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 212 Stone Hall, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA. 2011 Oct. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/

  6. “Office of Dietary Supplements – Chromium.” NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-HealthProfessional/#h2/.

  7. “Office of Dietary Supplements – Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss.” NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://www.nigms.nih.gov/education/fact-sheets/Pages/circadian-rhythms.aspx

  8. Khorsandi, Hoda, et al. “Zinc Supplementation Improves Body Weight Management, Inflammatory Biomarkers and Insulin Resistance in Individuals with Obesity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.” Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 11, no. 1, 2019, doi:10.1186/s13098-019-0497-8.

  9. Vázquez Cisneros, Lucía Cristina et al. Effects of green tea and its epigallocatechin (EGCG) content on body weight and fat mass in humans: a systematic review. Nutricion hospitalaria vol. 34,3 731-737. 5 Jun. 2017, doi:10.20960/nh.753

  10. Ruxton, C.H.S., et al. “Effects of an over‐the‐Counter Herbal Weight Management Product (Zotrim®) on Weight and Waist Circumference in a Sample of Overweight Women: A Consumer Study.” Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35, no. 5, 2005, pp. 303–314., doi:10.1108/00346650510625494.

  11. “Circadian Rhythms.” National Institute of General Medical Sciences, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/weight-management/prescription-medications-treat-overweight-obesity.

  12. SUGITA, Jun, et al. “Daily Ingestion of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum Melegueta) Extract Increases Whole-Body Energy Expenditure and Decreases Visceral Fat in Humans.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 60, no. 1, 2014, pp. 22–27., doi:10.3177/jnsv.60.22.

  13. Nobre, Anna C et al. “L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.” Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition vol. 17 Suppl 1 (2008): 167-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18296328/

  14. Gabriela Malanga, et al. “New Insights on Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Features as a Free Radical Scavenger.” Drug Metabolism Letters, vol. 6, no. 1, 2012, pp. 54–59., doi:10.2174/187231212800229282.

  15. Wal, Ankita, et al. “Adaptogens with a Special Emphasis on Withania Somnifera and Rhodiola Rosea.” Nutrition and Enhanced Sports Performance, 2019, pp. 407–418., doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-813922-6.00034-5.

  16. “Weight-Loss Medicines: Medlineplus Medical Encyclopedia.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm.

  17. “Prescription Medications to Treat Overweight & Obesity.” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/weight-management/prescription-medications-treat-overweight-obesity.

  18. “Diethylpropion: Medlineplus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a611003.html

  19. “Liraglutide Injection: Medlineplus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a619020.html.

  20. “Naltrexone and Bupropion: Medlineplus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682187.html.

  21. “Phentermine: Medlineplus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a612037.html.

  22. “Phentermine and Topiramate: Medlineplus Drug Information.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a612037.html.

Shannon Ancrum is a freelance writer specializing in health content. She’s gifted at unraveling complex medical jargon and explaining it to her readers simply and clearly.

Daniel Boyer is a practicing Doctor of medicine with a passion for medical research. He specializes in molecular biology, histology, and pharmacology.

This story was originally published March 24, 2022 8:20 PM.

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Exploring the Health Effects of Ageism

Sat Apr 23 , 2022
The resulting cut on her leg, though bloody, proved superficial. But when her grandmother suggested to the grocery owner that he not leave crates about, he responded that old people fall all the time, and maybe they shouldn’t be walking around. “The message stayed with her, and it seemed to […]